CONOCIMIENTO QUE TRANSFORMA


Heavy Metal Assessment In Drinking Waters Of Ecuador: Quito, Ibarra And Guayaquil

Chemical elements, which are present in drinking water, could vary due to water sources, treatment processes or even the plumbing materials. Most of these elements do not represent a threat, while others, such as heavy metals, have been proven to cause harmful effects over human and aquatic wildlife. In this study, the quality of drinking water in three cities in Ecuador, Quito, Ibarra and Guayaquil was assessed through a multielement analysis and the heavy metal pollution index (HPI). A total of 102 drinking water samples and six natural water samples were collected and analyzed. Within the scope of analysis, results show that water quality complies with local and international guidelines. HPI did not show significant differences in the water that is supplied to the different neighborhoods of the three cities studied. However, actions should be taken to protect the sources of water, especially in Guayaquil, due to the presence of lead and chromium. For instance, lead was found in 2.8% of the samples in concentrations above World Health Organization (WHO) recommended values. Thus, we suggest to assessing the quality and age of the plumbing system within the whole country, in order to avoid drinking water contamination with heavy metals.
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La Implementación del Sig de excavación: El caso de estudio de los sitios Las Orquídeas y Huataviro (Imbabura, Ecuador)

This paper focuses on the potential application of GIS (Geographical Information Systems) to the management of archaeological excavations. Based on the case studies of Huataviro and Las Orquideas (Imbabura, Ecuador), its usefulness is discussed and the challenges of the application of these systems to store, manage and analyze excavation data are studied.
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Mestizaje, identidad y resistencia en dos textos de Domitila Barrios

The present work is divided in two sections. First I will explore a field of tension between certain contemporary approaches to the notion of mestizaje (miscegenation) as a process of constitution of a sociality and an identity produced “from below,” that is to say, outside the discourses and hegemonic practices of racial administration of Latin American populations. On this basis I will read this mestizaje “from below” as a survival strategy and political positioning of certain subaltern, racialized and discriminated classes. In the second part I will explore some “cultural” self-definition strategies that can be traced in two texts that Bolivian political leader Domitila Barrios de Chungara wrote in coauthorship: the testimony If They Allow Me to Speak and the short interview “The Owners of This Land...” (1992). In my reading, I will explore cultural self-identification as a way of subaltern political and cultural resistance that, like mestizaje “from below,” implies a dialectical reworking (acceptance-rejection) of the indigenous elements, as well as a discursive ductility, properly mestizo, that uses it as a strategy for political resistance.
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