Multi‐Taxa Colonisation Along The Foreland Of A Vanishing Equatorial Glacier

Retreating glaciers, icons of climate change, release new potential habitats for both aquatic and terrestrial organisms. High-elevation species are threatened by tempera-ture increases and the upward migration of lowlands species. Improving our under-standing of successional processes after glacier retreat becomes urgent, especially in the tropics, where glacier shrinkage is particularly fast. We examined the successional pat-terns of aquatic invertebrates, ground beetles, terrestrial plants, soil eukaryotes (algae,invertebrates, plants) in an equatorial glacier foreland (Carihuairazo, Ecuador). Basedon both taxonomical identification and eDNA metabarcoding, we analysed the effects of both environmental conditions and age of deglacierization on community composi-tion. Except for algae, diversity increased with time since deglacierization, especially among passive dispersers, suggesting that dispersal was a key driver structuring theglacier foreland succession. Spatial β-diversity was mainly attributed to enestedness for aquatic invertebrates, terrestrial plants and soil algae, likely linked to low environmen-tal variability within the studied glacier foreland; and to turnover for soil invertebrates, suggesting competition exclusion at the oldest successional stage. Pioneer communi-ties were dominated by species exhibiting flexible feeding strategies and high dispersalability (mainly transported by wind), probably colonising from lower altitudes, or from the glacier in the case of algae. Overall, glacier foreland colonisation in the trop-ics exhibit common characteristics to higher latitudes. High-elevation species are nev-ertheless threatened, as the imminent extinction of many tropical glaciers will affect species associated to glacier-influenced habitats but also prevent cold-adapted and hygrophilous species from using these habitats as refuges in a warming world.
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Novel Antimicrobial Cruzioseptin Peptides Extracted From The Splendid Leaf Frog, Cruziohyla Calcarifer

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) constitute part of a broad range of bioactive compounds present on diverse organisms, including frogs. Peptides, produced in the granular glands of amphibian skin, constitute a component of their innate immune response, providing protection against pathogenic microorganisms. In this work, two novel cruzioseptins peptides, cruzi-oseptin-16 and -17, extracted from the splendid leaf frog Cruziohyla calcarifer are presented. These peptides were identified using molecular cloning and tandem mass spectrometry. Later, peptides were synthetized using solid-phase peptide synthesis, and their minimal inhibitory concentration and haemolytic activity were tested. Furthermore, these two cruzioseptins plus three previously reported (CZS-1, CZS-2, CZS-3) were computationally characterized. Results show that cruzioseptins are 21–23 residues long alpha helical cationic peptides, with antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, and C. albicans and low haemolytic efect. Docking results agree with the principal action mechanism of cationic AMPs that goes through cell membrane disruption due to electrostatic interactions between cationic residues in the cruzioseptins and negative phosphate groups in the pathogen cell membrane. An action mechanism through enzymes inhibition was also tried, but no conclusive results about this mechanism were obtained.
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Some Generalized Hermite–Hadamard–Fejér Inequality For Convex Functions

In this paper, we have established some generalized inequalities of Hermite–Hadamard–Fejér type for generalized integrals. The results obtained are applied for fractional integrals of various type and therefore contain some previous results reported in the literature
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